More than 100 reference examples and their corresponding in-text citations are presented in the seventh edition Publication Manual. Examples of the most common works that writers cite are provided on this page; additional examples are available in the Publication Manual.
To find the reference example you need, first select a category (e.g., periodicals) and then choose the appropriate type of work (e.g., journal article) and follow the relevant example.
When selecting a category, use the webpages and websites category only when a work does not fit better within another category. For example, a report from a government website would use the reports category, whereas a page on a government website that is not a report or other work would use the webpages and websites category.
Also note that print and electronic references are largely the same. For example, to cite both print books and ebooks, use the books and reference works category and then choose the appropriate type of work (i.e., book) and follow the relevant example (e.g., whole authored book).
Reference examples are covered in Chapter 10 of the APA Publication Manual, Seventh Edition
Textual works are covered in Sections 10.1–10.8 of the Publication Manual. The most common categories and examples are presented here. For the reviews of other works category, see Section 10.7.
Data and Assessments
Data sets are covered in Section 10.9 of the Publication Manual. For the software and tests categories, see Sections 10.10 and 10.11.
Audiovisual media are covered in Sections 10.12–10.14 of the Publication Manual. The most common examples are presented together here. In the manual, these examples and more are separated into categories for audiovisual, audio, and visual media.
- Artwork References
- Clip Art or Stock Image References
- Film and Television References
- Musical Score References
- Online Course or MOOC References
- Podcast References
- PowerPoint Slide or Lecture Note References
- Radio Broadcast References
- TED Talk References
- Transcript of an Audiovisual Work References
- YouTube Video References
Online media are covered in Sections 10.15 and 10.16 of the Publication Manual. Please note that blog posts are part of the periodicals category.
From the APA Style blog
How to cite an untitled music album reference
Before you attempt to create a reference list entry for a music album in your paper, fact-check the recording artist or group’s discography to ensure the title of the album—or the lack of one—is accurate.
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This blog post describes key tasks in writing an effective literature review and provides strategies for approaching those tasks.
How to cite a work with a nonrecoverable source
In most cases, nonrecoverable sources such as personal emails, nonarchived social media livestreams (or deleted and unarchived social media posts), classroom lectures, unrecorded webinars or presentations, and intranet sources should be cited only in the text as personal communications.
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One question we receive from time to time is how to alphabetize reference list entries starting with “a,” “an,” or “the,” and we’re here to help.
How to cite a music album reference
Seventh edition APA Style guidelines have made citing a music album easier for writers.
How to cite a single song or track reference
APA Style can help you cite the melodic works you love in your paper or manuscript. In this post, you will learn how to cite a single song or track reference.
The “outdated sources” myth is that sources must have been published recently, such as the last 5 to 10 years. There is no timeliness requirement in APA Style.
Back-to-school resources for students of APA Style: 2021 edition
This post compiles instructional resources about APA Style for easy reference.
When and how to transliterate titles in references
APA Style guidelines are to transliterate the title of a work written in a non-Roman alphabet into the Roman alphabet in the reference list entry and if mentioning the title in the text of your paper.
In this blog post, you will learn how to cite translated works. When doing so, create the reference in the language in which the translation you read was published.
Why titles have sentence case capitalization in APA Style references
Why are article titles and book titles in APA Style references in sentence case? The answer takes us back to the 1929 origins of APA Style and a guideline that continues to have practical advantages today.
“Lost” in translations? Aigoo [Oh no]
Creating an APA Style reference list entry for a work in another language is much simpler than translating every element.
From COVID-19 to demands for social justice: Citing contemporary sources for current events
The guidance in the seventh edition of the Publication Manual makes the process of citing contemporary sources found online easier than ever before.