References are used to document and substantiate statements made in the paper.

APA publications and other publishers and institutions using APA Style generally require reference lists, not bibliographies. A reference list contains works that specifically support the ideas, claims, and concepts in a paper; in contrast, a bibliography provides works for background or further reading and may include descriptive notes (e.g., an annotated bibliography).

The Publication Manual (see Section 9.51) provides formatting guidance and examples for annotated bibliographies. Annotated bibliographies can also be created with APA’s cloud-based writing and research software called Academic Writer.

Reference lists versus bibliographies is covered in the introduction to Chapter 9 of the APA Publication Manual, Seventh Edition

From the APA Style blog

How to cite an untitled music album reference

How to cite an untitled music album reference

Before you attempt to create a reference list entry for a music album in your paper, fact-check the recording artist or group’s discography to ensure the title of the album—or the lack of one—is accurate.

colorful file folder tabs

How to alphabetize “a,” “an,” and “the” in APA Style references

One question we receive from time to time is how to alphabetize reference list entries starting with “a,” “an,” or “the,” and we’re here to help.

How to cite a music album reference

How to cite a music album reference

Seventh edition APA Style guidelines have made citing a music album easier for writers.

Last updated: July 2022Date created: September 2019